Saturday, March 14, 2020
What factors made a person better at estimating the size of an angle or the length of a line Essays What factors made a person better at estimating the size of an angle or the length of a line Essay What factors made a person better at estimating the size of an angle or the length of a line Essay From this data we made a hypothesis on what factors made a person better at estimating the size of an angle or the length of a line. My hypothesis was that year 10 pupils would be better at estimating both the size of angles and the length of lines than the adults and the year 7 children but adults answers will be closer to the mean on average. To prove this I would have to use the information in the spreadsheet .I first found the mean of angle 1 ,angle2 ,line 1 and line 2 in all of the sample of year ten all of the sample of year seven and all of the sample of the adults because using this I could find the average percentage error of each group because I felt this was essential in trying to prove the hypothesis I made earlier .The means for each were as displayed in the table below:Year 10Year 7AdultsAngle157.7665.4251.25Angle 2142.72141.04147.05Line 13.874.553.6275Line 214.5214.6112.7325At the moment when I produced the data it didnt interpret the data into what I wanted to know but I could find using the spreadsheet so first decided to find the percentage error of each group again using the calculation shown in the preliminary testing this was(difference between original and average estimates / actual size/length)* 100But first we thought that in the data there may be rogue results these are called outliers and are values that do not follow the data in a reasonable trend and so can be eliminated using a certain formula that creates upper and lower fences and if values fall outside of these two fences they can be classed as outliers and will be dismissed from the data . To implement this formula we need to find the upper and lower quartiles of the data, so by using Microsoft excel this data was found. The formula to find upper and lower fences to eliminate outliers is as follows:Lower Fence = Lower quartile 1.5 * inter quartile rangeUpper Fence = Upper quartile + 1.5 * inter quartile rangeFrom this we gained our upper and lower fences which wereYear 10Upper FenceLower fenceAngle 173.537.5Angle 2190110Line 15.51.625Line 222.37.7Then we did the same for year 7Year 7Upper FenceLower fenceAngle 192.532.5Angle 220585Line 17.251.25Line 219.57.5And for the adultsAdultsUpper FenceLower fenceAngle 16533Angle 2188.75110.75Line 15.51.625Line 26.87517.675With this data we deleted rogue values which amounted only to three.So now we can find the percentage error without worrying about rogue values influencing what could be a vital difference.Year 10 (%)Year 7 (%)Adults (%)Angle 220.127.116.11Angle 27.99.035.12Line 14.6232Line 216.1716.881.9This gives us an idea of to which group is better at estimating the sizes of angles and the lengths of lines but to see this in another way we can use box plots which are very useful for comparing sets of data from different groups within a certain population. The length of the whiskers can give an indication of how the data is skewed, either positively or negatively. Also the true value can b e marked on to compare each of the medians to each other. By looking at the box plots , more specifically where the quartiles are marked we can see whether people tended to over estimate or under estimate. If the median is inclined slightly towards the upper quartile then people in that group under estimated more often than not and vice versa.So here are some box plots that compare all the age groups at both angles and lines.From this we see that the adults mean value is closer to the actual value of both angle 1 and angle 2 plus both the values of lines 1 and 2 ,this provides even more evidence to suggest against my hypothesis that years 10 pupils have a better ability at estimating both angles and lines because we have seen this through a percentage error and several box plot diagrams that we gained from using the averages from different groups but to prove my second statement in the prediction that adults estimates would be closer to their mean answer, which effectively means tha t adults made similar estimates to each other than the year 10 and 7 pupils , I need to use a statistical device called standard deviation this measures the spread of values from the mean, the bigger the value the more the answers are spread from the mean.Angle 1Angle 2Line 1Line 2Year 1011200.952.5Year 715301.53Adults1019.512.4We see the adults standard deviation figure being the smallest for three out of the four categories which proves one of my hypothesis statements correct but the other wrong this is because It was more of a guess than a prediction.Over all the taking all statistical methods used I came to the conclusion that adults were actually better at estimating both angles but it was interesting to see that the adults guesses had a small deviation from the mean (standard deviation) . The year 10 pupils by my calculations were second best ,their percentage errors were either very close to the adults in two out of four cases or dramatically a field from the other angle and line like the other two cases but their was a link between the angle and the line that were quite a bit out from the adult counterparts they were both the larger angles and lines using this information this could of provided another route of investigation to follow but then their was a factor preventing this being time and also looking at the year 7 data they were exactly the opposite to year ten pupils , where as they tended to be further out on the larger values of angle 2 and line 2 ,year 7 tended to be further out on the smaller sets of angle 1 and line 1 so their could have been a connection between this data and their ages or maybe gender but time did not permit us to investigate these fields.If I could reiterate the experiment I would make a more detailed hypothesis inducing me to analyse all possible fields that could of affected a persons ability to estimate the size of angles and lengths of lines an example of this is gender or intelligence but the field that I investigate d which was age came out to me with a very clear result , this was that on average the older you are the better you are at estimating the size of an angle and the length of a line ,but we must take into account that we used a random sample of 25% from each group this meant that we could of missed some peoples estimates that could of affected or swayed the results to a different conclusion this could be important. This means the concluding statement may not actually be correct if further investigated with more detail and with more age groups such as year 8 , 9 and 11 but is still correct for the investigation we carried out.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Leaders and Potential Leaders Literature review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Leaders and Potential Leaders - Literature review Example Cultivation was aimed at using one's intellect in doing a job. Emotional and actual advantages were given as the corresponding result. Third, the leader must be prepared to present the plan, to inform the followers of the requirements and to allow the followers to take control of the situation. Examining the AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Methods It is contended that the author did not implicitly state the thesis of the article. The statement could actually be simplified. Also, the grammatical structure was incorrect. The sentence started with a second person point of view and then it ended with a third person point of view ( the use of the word you to them). Such kind of mistake could actually disappoint the reader. It has a tendency to take away the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. As a result, one may stop reading the article upon noticing the wrong done. Nevertheless, if the one reading is a potential leader, then, there is a possibility that he or she will excuse such error. Moreover, the writer was not able to present adequate ideas to support the thesis. The suggested ways were too general. It could have been specifically enumerated. The writerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experiences were not enough to substantiate the proposed steps of utilization. Nonetheless, the third paragraph provided a logical example.
Monday, February 10, 2020
About the Country Cuba Policing - Essay Example Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular is the legislature of Cuba which means the National Assembly of People's Power and it meets two tomes in a year. All citizens who have no criminal background above the age of 16 can vote. The administrative subdivision of Cuba has 15 provinces and Isle of Youth (special municipality). Cuba has a lower crime rates than other major countries and cities. The police in Cuba are really active against crime.The principles of Marxism-Leninism are a key influential factor in the law system of Cuba and it is based on the Spanish Civil Laws. One of the important parts of Cuban law is the family law, which consists of marriage related laws like divorce, conjugal property relationships, recognition of children, responsibility of caring children, and education as well as adoption of children. Other than the family law, Cuban law also consists of substantive law and procedural law. The substantive and procedural laws were also made on the basis of the Spanish law . The major laws under the procedural and substantive law are criminal law, private property law and economic regulation. The laws which restrict the freedom of expression are a characteristic of Cuban law. The articles that restrict freedom of expression are article 62, 144, 208, 209, 103, 207, 115, 143, 72-90 and 91. Article 62 Ã¢â¬Å"seriously limits in practice the exercise of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assemblyÃ¢â¬ ... One of the important parts of Cuban law is the family law, which consists of marriage related laws like divorce, conjugal property relationships, recognition of children, responsibility of caring children, and education as well as adoption of children. Other than the family law, Cuban law also consists of substantive law and procedural law. The substantive and procedural laws were also made on the basis of the Spanish law. The major laws under the procedural and substantive law are criminal law, private property law and economic regulation. The laws which restrict the freedom of expression are a characteristic of Cuban law. The articles that restrict freedom of expression are article 62, 144, 208, 209, 103, 207, 115, 143, 72-90 and 91. Article 62 Ã¢â¬Å"seriously limits in practice the exercise of freedom of expression, association and peaceful assemblyÃ¢â¬ (Restrictions on Freedom of Expression in Cuba, 2010, p. 8). 3. Provide an overview of policing in your country. Further, dis cuss how it compares to policing in the U.S. You may want to talk about the use of specific policies in this section (e.g. zero tolerance law enforcement, etc.) Cuba is an authoritarian police nation which relies on exploitive techniques to sustain control. These techniques comprise intense electronic surveillance and physical control of both foreign visitors and Cuban cities. In general, Cuba is very safe state. It gives prominent and strict policing, joint with area watch style-programs that keep the streets safe from aggressive offense. However, a certain degree of caution and common-sense is advisable, especially in main cities. Guests are advised to keep away from coming to the attention of security services and Cuban police. Drug rules can be draconian and their execution
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Impact of Pre-Cooling as an Intervention Strategy to Minimize Cardiovascular system Essay Example for Free
The Impact of Pre-Cooling as an Intervention Strategy to Minimize Cardiovascular system Essay The aim of this report was to investigate whether the utilization of pre-cooling (cooling vest) prior to a 10, 000m road-race run within a hot and humid environment, would result in improved performance. The report also aimed to examine any performance-related effects, and their underlying physiological mechanisms. Fourteen (n=14) well-trained adult runners participated in two 10,000m-time trials, spaced 72 hours apart. Ambient conditions of both the control and experimental conditions were T= 32.5 Ã °C, rel. humidity= 65% and T= 32.8Ã¢â¬â¢C, rel. humidity= 63% respectively. Procedure consisted of a 30 minute warm up (20 minutes steady state running at RPE 13, 10 minutes individualized stretching activity). During the warm up, the control condition required participants to wear a normal tee shirt, with the experimental condition requiring participants to wear a commercially available gel-based cooling vest. Conclusion of the 30 min warm up saw the tee shirt or ice- vest replaced with the race singlet, before commencing the 10, 000 m time trial. Time, pre and post body mass, heart rate, skin temperature and core temperature were all variables measured and recorded. Participants were able to complete the 10,000m road-run in less time following the pre-cooling condition, suggesting that pre-cooling as an intervention strategy improved endurance performance. Results indicate this occurrence was due to significantly lower starting core and skin temperatures, reduced starting heart rate as well as an overall lower sweat rate. These factors allowed for a greater capacity of heat storage, minimizing thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain and therefore allowing the body to operate at a higher level of performance before reaching critical limiting temperature. Results Figure 1 displays the difference between time trials obtained in both the control and pre-cooling conditions. The pre-cool time trial was significantly shorter than the control time trial (p0.05). The difference between baseline and post body mass (BM) were recorded to calculate sweat rate (L/hr.). Figure 2 displays the difference in sweat rate between the control and pre-cool conditions. Control sweat rate was significantly higher then sweat rate recorded for the pre-cool condition. The above graph (Figure 3) depicts the mean heart rates and standard deviations for both control and pre-cool conditions. HR was recorded and displayed over three phases of the time trial (start, mid and end). Statistical analysis determined that there was a significant difference in HR between the three phases of the time trial (p0.05). Statistical significance also occurred between control start HR and pre-cool start HR, with control start HR 5.10% greater than pre-cool start HR. Skin temperature was also recorded and statistically analysed. Figure 4 displays the mean and standard deviations for skin temperature (Tsk) over three phases of the time trial for both the control and pre-cool conditions. Significant differences between both control and pre-cool conditions were found (p0.05). Significant statistical differences were also discovered between each of the phases of the time trial (p0.0167). Figure 5 depicts mean and standard deviations for core temperature (Tc). Significant statistical difference occurred between the three different stages of the time trial (p0.05). When compared separately, significant differences were found between all stages of the time trial (start vs. mid, start vs. end, mid vs. end) (p0.0167). Discussion The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-cooling through the utilization of a cooling vest would augment endurance performance undertaken in the heat. Findings obtained from the study indicate that pre-cooling did improve performance, as the pre-cooling condition time trials were significantly shorter than the control condition (p0.05). This ability to perform at a higher intensity, decreasing time taken to complete the 10,000m run can be explained by the physiological mechanisms behind pre-cooling. The ability to exercise under hot and humid conditions is significantly impaired (Nielsen, Hales, Strange, Christensen, Warberg Saltin, 1993) when ambient temperature exceeds skin temperature. Reduced heat loss that would normally occur through convection and radiation, results in an increase in body temperature (Marino Booth, 1998). By lowering pre-performance body temperature, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to capacitate metabolic heat production is increased (Siegel Laursen, 2012), therefore increasing the time to reach critical limiting temperature, at which exercise performance deteriorates or can no longer be maintained (Marino et al. 1998). Sweat rate was lower following pre-cooling compared to the control condition. A number of studies have also obtained similar results, finding greater heat storage capacities and subsequent sweat rates as a result of precooling (Olschewski Bruck, 1988)(Lee Haymes, 1995)(White, Davis Wilson, 2003). This can be explained by the greater heat storage, that is stimulated by precooling, delaying the onset of heat dissipation and subsequent sweat threshold (White et al. 2003). Furthermore, by minimizing sweat rate, the flow of blood to the skin surface is also reduced. This allows more blood to be distributed to the active muscles, reducing cardiovascular strain (White et al, 2003). Another physiological mechanism stimulated through pre-cooling, that aids in reducing cardiovascular strain is heart rate (HR)(Kay, Taaffe Marino, 1999). Recorded data over both conditions showed an increase in HR from the start to the end of the time trial. However, the only significant difference between control and precooling was found between the starting HR recordings. The precooling start HR was 5.10% lower than the control start HR (p0.0167). This significant difference was not maintained throughout mid and end recordings, with both the control and precooling end HR reaching approximately 191 bpm. Kay et al. (1999) found similar results, with HR slightly reduced following precooling within the first 20 minutes of exercise, however this difference was not maintained at 25 and 30 minutes of exercise. A review of relevant literature by Marino (2002) also indicated a lower HR during the start of exercise that was not seen throughout the rest of the exercise bout. These findings can be explained by greater central blood volume, a result of reduced body temperature and therefore no need to distribute blood flow to skin to lose heat. A greater central blood volume produces an increase in stroke volume, ultimately reducing HR and cardiovascular strain (Marino, 2002). Skin temperature results were also recorded over three phases of the time trial. Similar to HR, a significant difference between control and precooling start skin temperature recordings were found (p0.0167), but diminished throughout the remaining two phases of the time trial. Through the use of precooling and consequent lower skin temperature recordings, blood flow was not required at the skin, centrally withholding blood volume and assisting in reducing cardiac strain (Drust, Cable Reilly, 2000). The final variable assessed in this study was core temperature. According to Neilsen et al. (1993), high core temperature is the most important factor leading to exhaustion and impaired performance during exercise under hot and humid conditions. This may be due to brain and core body temperature having a corresponding relationship. Therefore, an increase in core temperature may result in an increase in brain temperature, resulting in central fatigue and affecting motor performance (Nybo, 2012). Core temperature results showed similarities to the findings for HR and skin temperature. Statistical significant differences were found between each phase that core temperature was recorded (p0.05)(start, mid and end time trial), showing a gradual rise from the start of the time trial to the end. A comparison of means via a T-test between start core temperature (control) and start core temperature (precool) showed a significant difference (p0.0167), which was not seen between samples during m id and end time trial. The findings from this study indicate and present the benefits precooling has on improving endurance performance in hot and humid environments. A number of studies and reviews studying precooling as an intervention strategy (Kay et al. 1993)(Marino, 2002)(Marino et al. 1998) have all shown the positive physiological mechanisms that arise from precooling. Time trials were significantly shorter in time following precooling, showing an improvement in performance. The significantly lower heart rate, skin temperature and core temperature stimulated by precooling at the start of the time trial, all contribute to a greater capacity for metabolic production. This greater capacity provides precooled subjects with the ability to work at a higher intensity for longer, before critical limiting temperature is reached, ultimately improving endurance performance.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
What is it to ME I was born in 1985 and I grew up with two younger brothers. Now when I look back on my life I realize that I have taken many things for granted. These things are the simple things that most people take for granted such as growing up in a good neighborhood, and not having to worry about gangs, violence, and drugs. Like most kids growing up in good areas I went to a good school that helped springboard my life. These blessing are what allowed me to get into this University. Every once in awhile I view or think of something that reminds me of how lucky I am. At this University I had one of these moments and it happened at an art museum. This museum had an exhibit on Brown v. The Board of Education. This exhibit is where I really came to appreciate what I was blessed with because of others before my time and what they have allowed me to do with it. The Brown v. Board of Education exhibit size was decent from my view but I have not been to an art exhibit for exceptionally long time. The thing that caught my eye the most was a video playing on a wall. This video had the screen split down the middle with two separate videos playing. On one side of the screen there was what seemed to be old video footage of a white family and then on the other side old video footage of a black family. These videos seemed to try to show that black and white life was the same during this time. The footage seemed to be taken in the sixties or seventies, based on the clothing worn in the footage, and this puzzled me due to the fact that black and white life was not equal at this time. It showed both families going to Disney World and their family get-togethers. The black family did seem to have more people over for the family together and much more food which just reminded me of my own family get-togethers, which I have to say are a blast. The whole film gave off an aura that the film had been contrived.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
In the BMW's future strategy, it strongly focus on expand of the potential market. For example, China and Russia. In terms of brand promotion, BMW Group, will seize the opportunity, and vigorously advise and expand public awareness network. At the same time, BMW also advertise their ambitions and sense of responsibility to society. In the automotive manufacturing area, BMW Group proposed to advertise new product concepts and environmental protection. BMW believes that with further development of the industrial era, the traditional energy sources will become a bottleneck restricting the development of society, as with the development of traditional energy sources will gradually disappear. All of these above are only general publicity, from the details; BMW also has many methods of influence to advertise the brand promotion. In the past, BMW through the sponsorship of 007 series of films to lead more people know about BMW. Nowadays, Now, BMW further into the ranks of social charity and welfare to go. I believe that in the future, more new ways to promote the brand BMW will also be generated in the process. From BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising trends, while BMW focus on its own personality and the brand image. BMW also changed their advertising strategies, slowly trying to go into the market culture. For example, in China, BMW will be promoting the brand through the action to protect the local cultural heritage. In short, any successful brand or product can not be divorced from the success of advertising and publicity. BMW case, other brands also do so.
Monday, January 6, 2020
I picked up my first box of Table TopicsTM on a whim while shopping in one of those funky little shops you see in the artsy parts of any city. A four-inch clear acrylic cube holds 135 cards, each with a provocative question that is sure to inspire lively, and meaningful, conversation. These little cards make a great game for the classroom or meeting room, around the table, or on the patio. Use them at any gathering of adults when you want stimulating conversation. Group Size Ideal for up to 10. Divide larger groups. Uses Introductions at a meeting, in the classroom, around the pool, at a party, anytime you want to inspire conversation. Time Needed Depends on the number of people and the time you allow for conversation after each introduction and answer. Materials Needed Cube of Table TopicsTM and a clock or watch. Instructions Select a person to begin, and ask him or her to pick a card from the Table TopicsTM cube. Explain that the person should give his or her name, and answer the question. Depending on the amount of time you have, allow a few minutes of conversation about the persons response, and then pass the cube to the next person. Card examples: Which piece of land would you wish to have preserved forever?Whats your favorite quotation?What song evokes the strongest memories for you? Alternatives Table TopicsTM offers nine different sets of questions: Original, Family Gathering, Gourmet, Family, Teen, Couples, Girls Night Out, Spirit, and Book Club. Choose the subject matter most appropriate for your group.Ã¢â¬â¹ For more information, visitÃ Table Topics.